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Bioscience News
Today's biological science headlines from the sources selected by our team:

Climate change means major ecosystem shifts for the Mediterranean Basin
Global warming above 1.5┬░Celsius, the ideal limit set by the 2015 Paris Agreement, will change the Mediterranean region, producing ecosystems never seen throughout the last 10,000 years, a new study reports. Already, regional temperatures in the Mediterranean basin are about 1.3┬░C higher than they were between 1880 and 1920, compared with an increase of roughly 0.85┬░C worldwide during the same period.
Plants & Animals News -- ScienceDaily, Fri, 28 Oct 2016 16:38:03 GMT

Genome sequencing reveals ancient interbreeding between chimpanzees and bonobos
For the first time, scientists have revealed ancient gene mixing between chimpanzees and bonobos, humankind's closest relatives, showing parallels with Neanderthal mixing in human ancestry. The study showed that one percent of chimpanzee genomes are derived from bonobos.
Plants & Animals News -- ScienceDaily, Fri, 28 Oct 2016 16:38:03 GMT

Mitochondria control stem cell fate
If the powerhouse of the cell, mitochondria, is disrupted, stem cells in the gut suffer, researchers have discovered. The human intestinal system covers an area of approximately 300 to 500 square meters due to its many protrusions (villi). This inner intestinal wall full of tiny bumps renews itself completely once every four to five days, a process which is guided by stem cells. Mitochondria are the powerhouse of a cell and provide energy through respiration, and play a crucial part in this process.
Plants & Animals News -- ScienceDaily, Fri, 28 Oct 2016 16:38:03 GMT

Human kidney progenitors isolated, offering new clues to cell renewal

In a first-of-its-kind look at human kidney development, researchers at The Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles have isolated human nephron progenitor (NP) cells. Their results, published online in the journal Stem Cell Translational Medicine, will help scientists understand how these progenitor cells become renal cells in the developing fetus, and possibly offer a future way to foster renal regeneration after chronic kidney failure or acute injury.

Biology News Net, Fri, 28 Oct 2016 16:38:03 GMT

Study reveals how ionising radiation damages DNA and causes cancer

For the first time, researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators have been able to identify in human cancers two characteristic patterns of DNA damage caused by ionising radiation. These fingerprint patterns may now enable doctors to identify which tumours have been caused by radiation, and investigate if they should be treated differently.

Biology News Net, Fri, 28 Oct 2016 16:38:03 GMT

Giraffes more speciose than expected

Scientists from the Senckenberg and the Giraffe Conservation Foundation have analysed the genetic relationships of all major populations of giraffe in the wild. The large study on the genetic makeup of giraffe, published today in Current Biology, shows that there are four distinct giraffe species. Until now, only one giraffe species had been recognized. The unexpected results are based on analyses using several nuclear marker genes of more than 100 animals. The new insights are set to improve protection efforts of these endangered animals in Africa.

Biology News Net, Fri, 28 Oct 2016 16:38:03 GMT

Whaling watchdog concludes discordant meeting
The world's whaling watchdog concluded a typically discordant meeting Friday with defeats for both the pro- and anti-whaling camps, and the organisation's very purpose called into question.
Biology News - Evolution, Cell theory, Gene theory, Microbiology, Biotechnology, Fri, 28 Oct 2016 16:38:03 GMT

When fat cells change their color
In mammals, three types of adipose tissues exist. White adipocytes are mainly located in the abdominal and subcutaneous areas of the body and highly adapted to store excess energy. Conversely, beige and brown adipocytes are highly energy-expending by generating heat. A team with the Freiburg researchers Prof. Dr. Roland Schuele and Dr. Delphine Duteil has now shown that the epigenetic enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) plays a key role in maintaining the metabolic properties of brown fat.
Biology News - Evolution, Cell theory, Gene theory, Microbiology, Biotechnology, Fri, 28 Oct 2016 16:38:03 GMT

How Frankenstein saved humankind from probable extinction
Frankenstein as we know him, the grotesque monster that was created through a weird science experiment, is actually a nameless Creature created by scientist Victor Frankenstein in Mary Shelley's 1818 novel, "Frankenstein." Widely considered the first work of science fiction for exploring the destructive consequences of scientific and moral transgressions, a new study published in BioScience argues that the horror of Mary Shelley's gothic novel is rooted in a fundamental principle of biology.
Biology News - Evolution, Cell theory, Gene theory, Microbiology, Biotechnology, Fri, 28 Oct 2016 16:38:03 GMT

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